The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed in a basilica on the east side. It also lacked the panoply of other administrative offices regulating the food supply, police, statues, temples, sewers, aqueducts, or other public works. Check out these books: Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. They rushed in a howling mob down the streets and through the houses, snatching up everything that glittered and destroying whatever they could not carry, pausing only to murder or to rape, or to break open the wine-cellars [...] . Constantinople was the largest and richest urban center in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the late Eastern Roman Empire, mostly as a result of its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. The other side of the city had natural defenses. This is the first major settlement that would develop on the site of later Constantinople, but the first known settlements was that of Lygos, referred to in Pliny's Natural Histories. Palaces and hovels alike were entered and wrecked. It is said that, in 1038, they were dispersed in winter quarters in the Thracesian Theme when one of their number attempted to violate a countrywoman, but in the struggle she seized his sword and killed him; instead of taking revenge, however, his comrades applauded her conduct, compensated her with all his possessions, and exposed his body without burial as if he had committed suicide.  The site, according to the founding myth of the city, was abandoned by the time Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara founded Byzantium (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) in around 657 BC, across from the town of Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus. At its peak, roughly corresponding to the Middle Ages, it was the richest and largest European city, exerting a powerful cultural pull and dominating economic life in the Mediterranean. Yule (1915), 46–49; see footnote No. T he ancient city of Constantinople, located in modern Turkey and today known as Istanbul, was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine in 330 who made it the seat of his reign. Following the division, Constantinople became the capital of the Byzantine Empire in the 400s. In 1909, in Constantinople there were 626 primary schools and 12 secondary schools.  Yet, at first, Constantine's new Rome did not have all the dignities of old Rome. Some versions of the founding myth say Byzas was the son of a local nymph, while others say he was conceived by one of Zeus' daughters and Poseidon. In the late 11th century catastrophe struck with the unexpected and calamitous defeat of the imperial armies at the Battle of Manzikert in Armenia in 1071. With the theme system a thing of â¦ He removed Theodora from the Great Palace to the Carian Palace and later to the monastery of Gastria, but, after the death of Bardas, she was released to live in the palace of St Mamas; she also had a rural residence at the Anthemian Palace, where Michael was assassinated in 867. In Hagia Sophia itself, drunken soldiers could be seen tearing down the silken hangings and pulling the great silver iconostasis to pieces, while sacred books and icons were trampled under foot. When Mehmed II finally entered Constantinople through the Gate of Charisius (today known as Edirnekapı or Adrianople Gate), he immediately rode his horse to the Hagia Sophia, where after the doors were axed down, the thousands of citizens hiding within the sanctuary were raped and enslaved, often with slavers fighting each other to the death over particularly beautiful and valuable slave girls. The restored Byzantine Empire was surrounded by enemies. From Constantinople palaces and â¦ Then it passed through the oval Forum of Constantine where there was a second Senate-house and a high column with a statue of Constantine himself in the guise of Helios, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking toward the rising sun. Many scholars[who?] "The Chronicle of Theophones Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern History AD 284-813". Nearby was the vast Hippodrome for chariot-races, seating over 80,000 spectators, and the famed Baths of Zeuxippus. In 1261, Constantinople was captured from its last Latin ruler, Baldwin II, by the forces of the Nicaean emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos. Mehmed's main concern with Constantinople had to do with solidifying control over the city and rebuilding its defenses. As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. Then the two of them slipped away with many of the nobility and embarked for Asia. Constantine the Great also legalized Christianity, which had previously been persecuted in the Roman Empire. The dwindling Byzantine Empire came to an end when the Ottomans breached Constantinopleâs ancient land wall after besieging the city for 55 days. This was the great cathedral of the city, whose dome was said to be held aloft by God alone, and which was directly connected to the palace so that the imperial family could attend services without passing through the streets. Even today, many quarters of Istanbul, such as Aksaray, Çarşamba, bear the names of the places of origin of their inhabitants. – 1643 C.E. Unnamed Mosque established during Byzantine times for visiting Muslim dignitaries. Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı, Istanbul. For three days the ghastly scenes [...] continued, till the huge and beautiful city was a shambles. The Byzantine Empire 1. Who constructed (founded) the city of Constantinople? p. 236. Byzantine history goes from the founding of Constantinople as imperial residence on 11 May 330 until 29 May 1453, when the Ottoman sultan Memhet II conquered the city. Constantine had altogether more colourful plans. Next, the white mosque located a little further east from the Hippodrome lies the Hagia Sophia (meaning “Divine Wisdom”), a structure standing for more than 1,400 years now. Fall of Constantinople, (May 29, 1453), conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire. Most times the history of the Empire is divided in three periods. It is to these that E.H. Ball (2016), pp. Emperors were no longer peripatetic between various court capitals and palaces. In the Ottoman period Islamic architecture and symbolism were used. It was where (as a shadow of the popular elections of old Rome) the people by acclamation showed their approval of a new emperor, and also where they openly criticized the government, or clamoured for the removal of unpopular ministers. 1 on p. 49 for discussion about the Byzantine diplomat sent to, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Great Siege of Constantinople/Second Arab Siege of Constantinople, sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church, The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty, Age of Empires II: The Conquerors Expansion, "Preserving The Intellectual Heritage – Preface", Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades, "The Restoration of Constantinople under Michael VIII", https://www.infezmed.it/media/journal/Vol_19_3_2011_10.pdf, "fall of Constantinople | Facts, Summary, & Significance", Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, "San Marco Basilica | cathedral, Venice, Italy", "Game Informer 218 details (Assassin's Creed, Rayman Origins)", Islamic Ritual Preaching (Khutbas) in a Contested Arena: Shi'is and Sunnis, Fatimids and Abbasids, "AZIZ (365-386/975-996), 15TH Iman – Ismaili.net – Heritage F.I.E.L.D. Following a number of civil disputes in the Byzantine Empire, the Ottomans subjugated the Byzantines as vassals in the late 14th century and attempts to relieve this vassal status culminated in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23, (1969): 229–249. The modern Turkish name for the city, İstanbul, derives from the Greek phrase eis tin polin (εἰς τὴν πόλιν), meaning "(in)to the city". The importance of Constantinople increased, but it was gradual. " Buildings were not the only targets of officials looking to raise funds for the impoverished Latin Empire: the monumental sculptures which adorned the Hippodrome and fora of the city were pulled down and melted for coinage. Particular examples include St Mark's Basilica in Venice, the basilicas of Ravenna, and many churches throughout the Slavic East. About.com. In: 'Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi', ed. 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